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Sugar-on-Android, week one
cananian

Last week I described a four-week plan to survey key technologies for One Laptop Per Child's forthcoming XO-3 tablet computer. Here I'll describe the results of the first week of work, which dove into Google's Android operating system. Warning: technical content ahead...

Basic design of Sugar-on-Android

  1. Cross-compile gobject/GTK/gobject-introspection/cairo/dbus for Android; distribute these key libraries as NDK libraries. This is what I spent most of my time on this week: I've managed so far to port libiconv, gettext, glib, pixman, freetype, fontconfig, cairo, libxml2, and pango. (Source code)
  2. Use cairo or OpenGL backends of GTK3 to render legacy Sugar activities directly to Android canvas.
  3. Modularize sugar; use D-Bus for inter-module communication. Interprocess communication mechanism is Android 'intents'; these can redirect to the web or the Android Market for missing dependencies. (Collabora reportedly already has a D-Bus implementation for Android.) Sugar components can also become Android Services.
  4. Implement Sugar Home/Groups/Neighborhood views and Journal as four separate Android App Widgets. These could also be implemented by providing a new Android home application, but I think the finer-grained modularity afforded by splitting these functions would yield a better design and make it easier to incorporate upstream improvements to the Android launcher.(Android Live Wallpaper is also similar in function, but not as good a fit.)
  5. The Sugar Journal becomes an Android "Content Provider", which stores/retrieves content for other Sugar activities. (There is special Android support for "collection-based Widgets" and Live Folders which may be helpful.)
  6. Use gobject-introspection to build a multi-language environment. Use JGIR to expose Sugar APIs to "native" Dalvik apps; use something like the Android Scripting Environment to expose Android native APIs to GIR languages (Python, JavaScript, C, etc).
  7. [opportunity] Use the Android port of OLSRd to implement a Neighborhood view. Alternatively, investigate AODV routing on Android and/or AllJoyn (which also requires root access, see pg 24-25 of the manual).

Key Benefits

  • Sugar is integrated into Android environment; use native Android education apps, or apps like Movie Studio which have no Sugar equivalents yet.
  • Android APIs and customization hooks are good, and provide a more-extensible framework for development.

Open challenges (general)

  1. The web integration story is cloudy. Java and JavaScript can call each other inside a bundled WebView widget, but this isn't supported in standard Browser app. Browser plugin interface would help.
  2. No good story for building 'native' Java/Dalvik or C apps on the device. Writing a simple Dalvik compiler would help. Dalvik specs are available, and people have written Dalvik compilers for toy languages.
  3. "View source" requests can be implemented as an Android 'intent' message, but no good story for implementing this functionality other than on a case-by-case basis in each activity.
  4. Although the Amazon Marketplace for Android indicates that it can be done, it appears that there is no "blessed" mechanism for creating .apk files on the device and installing them. (Android bug, discussion)

Current technical issues/bugs

  1. Cross-compiling for Android is currently a miserable experience. The Android NDK appears to have been put together by a team which had never seen a proper cross-compiler before. Since I only had a week for this exploration, I mostly kludged things together to get past this, but any serious work with Android should start by defining and upstreaming proper autoconf "target triplets" for Android-on-{ARMv5, ARMv7, x86} and building a proper cross-compiler. Then patches to various tools and libraries could start being upstreamed. Using the bespoke Android.mk build system of the NDK is a non-starter. No serious obstacles here, just work to do.
  2. Xoom hardware is ARMv7, but Android emulator is ARMv5 only. Unfortunately, gdb is broken on the Xoom. So we're building for ARMv5 at the moment, so we can debug in the (slow) emulator.
  3. No good support for shared libraries may cause activity bloat. May be able to be worked around using the new Opaque Binary Blob (OBB) feature.
  4. Much existing code (fontconfig, gettext, gtk, etc) expects to read configuration files from the filesystem. Currently we are using the default fall-back configurations. OBB support may help here as well. There are a number of different storage APIs in Android, but none seems quite right.
  5. It would be nice to implement a ring-style XO home screen without completing replacing the android Launcher. No clear way to constrain app layout on home screen w/o completely replacing the Launcher. Is it worth hacking the Launcher source?
  6. Mesh on Android using OLSRd current requires root access. In order to run on unrooted Android devices, we need (a) proper power management for Ad Hoc mode wifi, (b) APIs to enable Ad Hoc mode, and (c) APIs to manipulate kernel routes.
  7. We're building libraries without thread support because Android's "Bionic" libc has an eccentric thread library. Linking with -lpthread fails because the thread functionality is bundled into -lc. Probably just providing an empty libpthread.so would help a lot.
  8. Some work has been done to build GNU libc for Android. This bloats activities even further, but might help ease library porting.
  9. Porting gobject-introspection will be painful because its makefiles are not set up for cross-compiling. Some steps want to run on the target hardware, which is difficult in the Android environment.

Bottom line

I can see how the whole Sugar stack can be put together on the Android platform. The hardest part is probably just setting up packaging and a good and repeatable build environment for the different components, and getting enough adoption of this that patches to support Android can be pushed upstream. Many of the important pieces can be developed in parallel (Theme, Journal, Mesh, Friends, Home, library porting, etc). A little early to tell how hard it will be to port existing Sugar activities to the new Python/pygobject/GTK3 framework.


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